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Anal Chem. 2014 Mar 4;86(5):2458-64. doi: 10.1021/ac403304g. Epub 2014 Feb 11.

Nanoscale organization of human GnRH-R on human bladder cancer cells.

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State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science , Changchun 130022, P.R. China.


Human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R; or type I GnRH-R), which is expressed in tumor cells, has gained more and more attention as a specific target for cancer therapy. Given the clinical utility, the improved characterization of both the subcellular distribution and surface organization of GnRH-R is an important step in the development of more effective and possibly new therapeutic strategies. In the present study, the nano-organization of human GnRH-R was analyzed on fixed human bladder cancer cells (T24) by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The recognition images reveal that GnRH-Rs have a tendency to assemble in nanodomains (or clusters) that are irregularly distributed on the T24 cell surface. The locations of the GnRH-Rs were identified on the topographical images with nanometer accuracy. The obtained results enrich our understanding of the local distribution of GnRH-Rs on the bladder cancer cell membrane and demonstrate the ability of biological AFM to provide more complete and exact information at the single molecule level.

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