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Expert Rev Hematol. 2014 Feb;7(1):21-31. doi: 10.1586/17474086.2014.882224.

Staging and prognostication of multiple myeloma.

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Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic in Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ 85259-5494, USA.


Multiple myeloma (MM) is a heterogeneous disease that, over the past 15 years, has seen an increased understanding of its biology and of novel therapeutic options. Distinctive subtypes of the disease have been described, each with different outcomes and clinic-pathological features. Even though a detailed classification of MM into at least seven or eight major subtypes is possible, a more practical clinical approach can classify the disease into high-risk and non-high-risk MM. Such classification has permitted a more personalized approach to the management of the disease. Additionally, risk stratification should be included in outcome discussions with patients, as survival differs significantly by high-risk status. Nowadays, test for risk stratification are widely available and can be routinely used in the clinic. A greater understanding of the genetic abnormalities underlying the biology of MM will allow for the development of novel targeted therapies and better prognostic markers of the disease.

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