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Parasitol Res. 2014 Apr;113(4):1343-52. doi: 10.1007/s00436-014-3773-4. Epub 2014 Jan 31.

Cross-resistance, genetics, and realized heritability of resistance to fipronil in the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae): a potential vector for disease transmission.

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Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan,


Houseflies, Musca domestica (L.), are ubiquitous pests that have the potential to spread a variety of pathogens to humans, poultries, and dairies. Pesticides are commonly used for the management of this pest. Fipronil is a GABA-gated chloride channel-inhibiting insecticide that has been commonly used for the management of different pests including M. domestica throughout the world. Many pests have developed resistance to this insecticide. A field-collected strain of M. domestica was selected with fipronil for continuous 11 generations to assess the cross-resistance, genetics, and realized heritability for designing a resistance management strategy. Laboratory bioassays were performed using the feeding method of mixing insecticide concentrations with 20% sugar solutions and cotton soaks dipped in insecticide solutions were provided to tested adult flies. Bioassay results at G12 showed that the fipronil-selected strain developed a resistance ratio of 140-fold compared to the susceptible strain. Synergism bioassay with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) indicated that fipronil resistance was associated with microsomal oxidase and also esterase. Reciprocal crosses between resistant and susceptible strains showed an autosomal and incompletely dominant resistance to fipronil. The LC50 values of F1 and F'1 strains were not significantly different and dominance values were 0.74 and 0.64, respectively. The resistance to fipronil was completely recessive (D(ML) = 0.00) at the highest dose and incompletely dominant at the lowest dose (D(ML) = 0.87). The monogenic resistance based on chi-square goodness of fit test and calculation of the minimum number of segregating genes showed that resistance to fipronil is controlled by multiple genes. The fipronil resistance strain confirmed very low cross-resistance to emamectin benzoate and spinosad while no cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos and acetamiprid when compared to that of the field population. The heritability values were 0.112, 0.075, 0.084, 0.008, and 0.052 for fipronil, emamectin benzoate, spinosad, acetamiprid, and chlorpyrifos, respectively. It was concluded that fipronil resistance in M. domestica was autosomally inherited, incompletely dominant, and polygenic. These findings would be helpful for the better and successful management of M. domestica.

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