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J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2011 Jan;1(1):9-13. doi: 10.4103/2231-0762.86374.

Halitosis: A frequently ignored social condition.

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Department of Public Health Dentistry, M. M. College of Dental Sciences and Research, Mullana, India.


Halitosis is a common complaint of one third of the population. It is commonly known as 'bad breath'. The causes of halitosis can both be intraoral (90%) as well as extraoral (10%). Malodor of oral etiology results from the oral cavity itself. Non oral etiology may include various systemic diseases and use of certain drugs. Halitosis can act as a biomarker for various systemic diseases. Organoleptic examination, gas chromatography and portable sulfide monitors are the common methods of measurement of halitosis. Brushing twice daily with tongue cleaning can sufficiently manage halitosis in majority of the population while antimicrobial oral rinses can be prescribed to the non respondents. Necessary investigations and treatment should follow for those having extra oral cause of halitosis.


Bad breath; halitosis; malodor

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