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J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2014 Apr;18(2):182-9. doi: 10.1097/LGT.0b013e3182a577c7.

Prevalence of human papillomavirus types in invasive cervical cancers from 7 US cancer registries before vaccine introduction.

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1Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY; 2Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, and 3Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA; 4Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA; 5Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA; 6Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL; 7Florida Department of Health, Tallahassee, FL; 8Michigan Department of Community Health, Lansing, MI; 9Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center and Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA; 10University of Hawaii Cancer Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI; 11Battelle Memorial Institute, Durham, NC; and 12Markey Cancer Control Program, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.



We conducted a baseline study of human papillomavirus (HPV) type prevalence in invasive cervical cancers (ICCs) using data from 7 cancer registries (CRs) in the United States. Cases were diagnosed between 1994 and 2005 before the implementation of the HPV vaccines.


Cancer registries from Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Hawaii, Iowa, and Los Angeles, California identified eligible ICC cases and obtained sections from representative blocks of archived tumor specimens for DNA extraction. All extracts were assayed by linear array and, if inadequate or HPV negative, retested with INNO-LiPA Genotype test. Clinical and demographic factors were obtained from the CRs and merged with the HPV typing data to analyze factors associated with different types and with HPV negativity.


A total of 777 ICCs were included in this analysis, with broad geographic, age, and race distribution. Overall, HPV was detected in 91% of cases, including 51% HPV-16, 16% HPV-18 (HPV-16-negative), and 24% other oncogenic and rare types. After HPV-16 and -18, the most common types were 45, 33, 31, 35, and 52. Older age and nonsquamous histology were associated with HPV-negative typing.


This study provides baseline prevaccine HPV types for postvaccine ICC surveillance in the future. HPV-16 and/or -18 were found in 67% of ICCs, indicating the potential for vaccines to prevent a significant number of cervical cancers.

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