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Hum Mol Genet. 2014 Jun 15;23(12):3269-77. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddu038. Epub 2014 Jan 29.

Exome sequencing improves genetic diagnosis of structural fetal abnormalities revealed by ultrasound.

Author information

1
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, UK.
2
School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine (Birmingham Centre for Women's and Children's Health), College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.
3
West Midlands Regional Genetics Laboratory, Birmingham Women's NHS Trust, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TG, UK.
4
School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine (Birmingham Centre for Women's and Children's Health), College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK Fetal Medicine Centre, Birmingham Women's Foundation Trust, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TG, UK m.d.kilby@bham.ac.uk.

Abstract

The genetic etiology of non-aneuploid fetal structural abnormalities is typically investigated by karyotyping and array-based detection of microscopically detectable rearrangements, and submicroscopic copy-number variants (CNVs), which collectively yield a pathogenic finding in up to 10% of cases. We propose that exome sequencing may substantially increase the identification of underlying etiologies. We performed exome sequencing on a cohort of 30 non-aneuploid fetuses and neonates (along with their parents) with diverse structural abnormalities first identified by prenatal ultrasound. We identified candidate pathogenic variants with a range of inheritance models, and evaluated these in the context of detailed phenotypic information. We identified 35 de novo single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), small indels, deletions or duplications, of which three (accounting for 10% of the cohort) are highly likely to be causative. These are de novo missense variants in FGFR3 and COL2A1, and a de novo 16.8 kb deletion that includes most of OFD1. In five further cases (17%) we identified de novo or inherited recessive or X-linked variants in plausible candidate genes, which require additional validation to determine pathogenicity. Our diagnostic yield of 10% is comparable to, and supplementary to, the diagnostic yield of existing microarray testing for large chromosomal rearrangements and targeted CNV detection. The de novo nature of these events could enable couples to be counseled as to their low recurrence risk. This study outlines the way for a substantial improvement in the diagnostic yield of prenatal genetic abnormalities through the application of next-generation sequencing.

PMID:
24476948
PMCID:
PMC4030780
DOI:
10.1093/hmg/ddu038
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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