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Public Health Nutr. 2015 Jan;18(1):112-21. doi: 10.1017/S1368980013003480. Epub 2014 Jan 17.

Association of vitamin D with adiposity measures and other determinants in a cross-sectional study of Cypriot adolescents.

Author information

1
1Cyprus International Institute for Environmental & Public Health in association with Harvard School of Public Health,Cyprus University of Technology,95 Irenes Street,3041 Limassol,Cyprus.
2
43rd Department of Pediatrics,Attikon University Hospital,University of Athens Medical School,Athens,Greece.
3
2Department of Nursing,School of Health Sciences,Cyprus University of Technology,Limassol,Cyprus.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess vitamin D status among Cypriot adolescents and investigate potential determinants including BMI and body fat percentage (BF%).

DESIGN:

Participants had cross-sectional assessments of serum vitamin D, physical activity, dietary vitamin D intake and sun exposure. Linear and logistic regression models were used to explore the associations of vitamin D with potential predictors.

SETTING:

Hospitals, Cyprus, November 2007-May 2008.

SUBJECTS:

Adolescents (n 671) aged 16-18 years.

RESULTS:

Mean serum vitamin D was 22·90 (sd 6·41) ng/ml. Only one in ten children had sufficient levels of vitamin D (≥30 ng/ml), while the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (12-20 ng/ml) and severe deficiency (<12 ng/ml) was 31·7 % and 4·0 %, respectively. Lower vitamin D was associated with winter and spring season, female gender, reduced sun exposure in winter and darker skin. Participants with highest BMI and BF% when compared with a middle reference group had increased adjusted odds of vitamin D insufficiency (OR = 3·00; 95 % CI 1·21, 7·45 and OR = 5·02; 95 % CI 1·80, 13·97, respectively). A similar pattern, although not as strong, was shown for vitamin D deficiency with BF% (OR = 1·81; 95 % CI 1·04, 3·16) and BMI (OR = 1·51; 95 % CI 0·85, 2·67). Participants in the lowest BMI and BF% groups also displayed compromised vitamin D status, suggesting a U-shaped association.

CONCLUSIONS:

Vitamin D deficiency in adolescence is very prevalent in sunny Cyprus, particularly among females, those with darker skin and those with reduced sun exposure in winter. Furthermore, vitamin D status appears to have a U-shaped association with adiposity measures.

KEYWORDS:

Adiposity; Adolescents; BMI; Body fat percentage; Predictors; Vitamin D

PMID:
24476931
DOI:
10.1017/S1368980013003480
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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