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Iran J Microbiol. 2013 Sep;5(3):309-14.

Biodeterioration agents: Bacterial and fungal diversity dwelling in or on the pre-historic rock-paints of Kabra-pahad, India.

Author information

1
National Cave Research and Protection Organization, Central Laboratory, Raipur, C.G., India.
2
National Cave Research and Protection Organization, Central Laboratory, Raipur, C.G., India ; Arts and Commerce Girls college, Raipur, C.G, India.
3
National Cave Research and Protection Organization, Central Laboratory, Raipur, C.G., India ; Department of Zoology, Govt' DB Girl's PG College, Raipur, C.G., India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

In the last few decades, losses of our cultural heritage due to biodeteriorationare beinghighly recognized. From museum objects to rock monuments, the microbial biodeterioration agents are found to be the most destructive. Possibilities for proper preservative measure(s) are always more when it is only a monument, statue, museum article, or pre-historic art in any small subterranean cave. Nevertheless, preservation/protection of the footprints occupying a big area, lying scattered in a very negligible manner requires safeguard against several deterioration factors; right from various physical, chemical and biological agents which are indeed interrelated to each other.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

In the present study, some microbial communities possibly responsible for deteriorating the rocks of Kabra-pahad, where the most famous pre-historic rock paints of India prevail have been identified. The diversity of fungi and bacteria present in the stone crust of the infected areas has been studied by employing standard laboratory methods.

RESULTS:

The cultivated cultures confirmed total fifteen fungal species, among which Aspergillus group were the most dominant. Among bacteria, total 80 numbers of colonies were observed that dominated by two major groups; Micrococcus.spp and Staphylococcus spp.

CONCLUSION:

The pre-historic footprint in the form of rock paints in Kabra-pahad of district Raigarh, Chhattisgarh, India is lying in a very deteriorated manner. In the present study, we have tried to identify few major deteriorating factors that are responsible for such degradation of our existing pre-historic footprints.

KEYWORDS:

Bio-deterioration; Cultural heritage; Rock weathered; Rock-paint; microbial attacks

PMID:
24475341
PMCID:
PMC3895572

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