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Peptides. 2014 Mar;53:194-201. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2014.01.012. Epub 2014 Jan 25.

Studies on the role of insect hemolymph polypeptides: Galleria mellonella anionic peptide 2 and lysozyme.

Author information

1
Department of Immunobiology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Akademicka 19 St., 20-033 Lublin, Poland.
2
Department of Comparative Anatomy and Anthropology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Akademicka 19 St., 20-033 Lublin, Poland.
3
Department of Analytical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7 St., 30-387 Krakow, Poland.
4
Department of Immunobiology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Akademicka 19 St., 20-033 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address: cytryna@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl.

Abstract

The lysozymes are well known antimicrobial polypeptides exhibiting antibacterial and antifungal activities. Their antibacterial potential is related to muramidase activity and non-enzymatic activity resembling the mode of action of cationic defense peptides. However, the mechanisms responsible for fungistatic and/or fungicidal activity of lysozyme are still not clear. In the present study, the anti-Candida albicans activity of Galleria mellonella lysozyme and anionic peptide 2 (AP2), defense factors constitutively present in the hemolymph, was examined. The lysozyme inhibited C. albicans growth in a dose-dependent manner. The decrease in the C. albicans survival rate caused by the lysozyme was accompanied by a considerable reduction of the fungus metabolic activity, as revealed by LIVE/DEAD staining. In contrast, although AP2 reduced C. albicans metabolic activity, it did not influence its survival rate. Our results suggest fungicidal action of G. mellonella lysozyme and fungistatic activity of AP2 toward C. albicans cells. In the presence of AP2, the anti-C. albicans activity of G. mellonella lysozyme increased. Moreover, when the fungus was incubated with both defense factors, true hyphae were observed besides pseudohyphae and yeast-like C. albicans cells. Atomic force microscopy analysis of the cells exposed to the lysozyme and/or AP2 revealed alterations in the cell surface topography and properties in comparison with the control cells. The results indicate synergistic action of G. mellonella AP2 and lysozyme toward C. albicans. The presence of both factors in the hemolymph of naive larvae suggests their important role in the early stages of immune response against fungi in G. mellonella.

KEYWORDS:

Anionic peptide 2; Atomic force microscopy; Candida albicans; Galleria mellonella; Lysozyme; Synergy

PMID:
24472857
DOI:
10.1016/j.peptides.2014.01.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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