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Infect Dis Rep. 2013 Nov 27;5(2):e13. doi: 10.4081/idr.2013.e13. eCollection 2013 Oct 9.

Fecal microbiota transplantation: the state of the art.

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National Institute for Infectious Diseases L. Spallanzani , Rome, Italy ;
Department of Medical Microbiology, King's College Hospital , London, UK ;
Department of Internal Medicine, Son Espases University Hospital, Palma of Majorca , Spain.


Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an emerging problem in terms of incidence, morbidity and mortality. Currently available treatment options are not always effective, especially in cases of recurrent/refractory or complicated CDI. The gut microbiota transplantation is a technique that has been sporadically practiced since the '50s, but its clinical efficacy has only recently been supported by scientific evidence. In the present article, we report the pathophysiological basis and the clinical indications of this technique that, in light of its low cost, and proven efficacy and safety, is likely to become part of the management guidelines of difficult cases of CDI in the near future.


Clostridium difficile infection; microbiota transplantation

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