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Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2014 Mar;23(3):261-7. doi: 10.1002/pds.3576. Epub 2014 Jan 27.

Association between vitamin D receptor activator and the risk of infection-related hospitalizations among incident hemodialysis patients: a nested case-control study.

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Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital Research Center, Montreal, Canada.



Patients suffering from chronic kidney disease are at greater risk of developing infection than the normal population, and infections are the second cause of mortality after cardiovascular complications in this population. Some reports suggest that the intake of active vitamin D might be beneficial to prevent infections. Therefore, we aimed to determine if the oral intake of vitamin D receptor activator (VDRA) is associated with a lower risk of infection-related hospitalization (IRH) among incident chronic hemodialysis patients.


We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of 4933 patients initiating chronic hemodialysis between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2007 in Quebec, Canada, using administrative databases. We identified cases of hospital admission indicating an infection as main diagnosis on the hospital's discharge sheet. Up to 10 controls were randomly selected for each case. Association between oral VDRA use and risk of IRH was estimated using conditional logistic regression.


We identified 1136 cases of IRH and 10396 controls during the study period. The intake of VDRA was not associated with the risk of being hospitalized due to an infection (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-1.20). Using the prior 6-month cumulative dose of VDRA, we also found that a cumulative VDRA dose of less than 45 mcg (OR, 1.05; 95%CI, 0.92-1.19) or greater than 45 mcg (OR, 1.15; 95%CI, 0.96-1.36) was not associated with the IRH risk.


The oral intake of VDRA was not associated with the risk of IRH in incident hemodialysis patients.


epidemiology; infections; kidney failure, chronic; pharmacoepidemiology; registries; renal dialysis; vitamin D

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