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J Clin Psychol. 2012 Apr;68(4):432-47. doi: 10.1002/jclp.21838.

Development and psychometric evaluation of the Multidimensional Assessment of Social Anxiety (MASA).

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Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Medical University of South Carolina.



Hybrid models of psychopathology propose to combine the current categorical diagnostic system with shared symptom dimensions common across various disorders. Recently, the first empirically derived hybrid model of social anxiety was developed, including both a specific factor for the diagnostic category of social anxiety and 5 nonspecific factors for related symptoms. The present investigation developed a self-report measure-the Multidimensional Assessment of Social Anxiety (MASA)-based on this model to further the research on hybrid models.


This investigation included three studies across large undergraduate (N = 411; 52.3% male; mean [M] age = 19.6) and clinical (N = 684; 61.4% female; M age = 35.8) samples, involving the administration of the MASA item pool and existing measures of related constructs.


Through a series of psychometric evaluations, the initial 466-item pool was reduced to a final 38-item measure that represented 6 distinct scales with adequate model fit, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity.


Together, these studies likely will lead to additional research and advances in the development of the hybrid models of the mood and anxiety disorders through the dissemination and administration of the MASA.


MASA; Multidimensional Assessment of Social Anxiety; hybrid model; social anxiety; social phobia

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