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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 Jun;69(6):1572-8. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkt540. Epub 2014 Jan 26.

In vitro synergy testing of novel antimicrobial combination therapies against Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy and Infectious Disease, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Public Health - Seattle & King County HIV/STD Program, Seattle, WA, USA lbarbee@u.washington.edu.
2
Neisseria Reference Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Center for AIDS and STD, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
3
Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy and Infectious Disease, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Neisseria Reference Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Center for AIDS and STD, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
4
Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy and Infectious Disease, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Public Health - Seattle & King County HIV/STD Program, Seattle, WA, USA Center for AIDS and STD, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major public health threat. Current CDC treatment guidelines for uncomplicated gonorrhoea recommend only ceftriaxone plus either azithromycin or doxycycline. Additional treatment options are needed.

METHODS:

We used antibiotic gradient synergy testing (the Etest) to evaluate antimicrobial combinations that included a third-generation cephalosporin (cefixime or ceftriaxone) plus azithromycin, doxycycline, gentamicin, rifampicin or fosfomycin. We tested each combination against 28 clinical N. gonorrhoeae isolates and four control strains of varying susceptibility profiles, and compared the results with those obtained using combination antimicrobial testing using agar dilution. We calculated the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) for each combination to determine synergy, the results being interpreted as follows: FICI ≤ 0.5 = synergy; FICI > 4.0 = antagonism; and FICI > 0.5-4 = indifference.

RESULTS:

The combinations of a third-generation cephalosporin plus azithromycin, doxycycline, rifampicin, gentamicin or fosfomycin produced FICIs of indifference. The Etest and agar dilution methods produced comparable results.

CONCLUSIONS:

Combinations of ceftriaxone plus rifampicin, gentamicin or fosfomycin may warrant further clinical investigation as treatments for gonorrhoea. Using the Etest for synergy testing is a viable method that has practical advantages over agar dilution.

KEYWORDS:

antimicrobial resistance; novel therapies; sexually transmitted diseases

PMID:
24468865
PMCID:
PMC4019328
DOI:
10.1093/jac/dkt540
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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