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Epilepsy Behav. 2014 Sep;38:105-16. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.12.022. Epub 2014 Jan 24.

Hippocampal granule cell pathology in epilepsy - a possible structural basis for comorbidities of epilepsy?

Author information

1
Department of Anesthesia, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA; Molecular and Developmental Biology Graduate Program, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.
2
Department of Anesthesia, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA; Department of Anesthesia, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA; Molecular and Developmental Biology Graduate Program, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA. Electronic address: steve.danzer@cchmc.org.

Abstract

Temporal lobe epilepsy in both animals and humans is characterized by abnormally integrated hippocampal dentate granule cells. Among other abnormalities, these cells make axonal connections with inappropriate targets, grow dendrites in the wrong direction, and migrate to ectopic locations. These changes promote the formation of recurrent excitatory circuits, leading to the appealing hypothesis that these abnormal cells may by epileptogenic. While this hypothesis has been the subject of intense study, less attention has been paid to the possibility that abnormal granule cells in the epileptic brain may also contribute to comorbidities associated with the disease. Epilepsy is associated with a variety of general findings, such as memory disturbances and cognitive dysfunction, and is often comorbid with a number of other conditions, including schizophrenia and autism. Interestingly, recent studies implicate disruption of common genes and gene pathways in all three diseases. Moreover, while neuropsychiatric conditions are associated with changes in a variety of brain regions, granule cell abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy appear to be phenocopies of granule cell deficits produced by genetic mouse models of autism and schizophrenia, suggesting that granule cell dysmorphogenesis may be a common factor uniting these seemingly diverse diseases. Disruption of common signaling pathways regulating granule cell neurogenesis may begin to provide mechanistic insight into the cooccurrence of temporal lobe epilepsy and cognitive and behavioral disorders.

KEYWORDS:

Autism; Disc1; Epilepsy; Neurogenesis; Reelin; Schizophrenia; mTOR

PMID:
24468242
PMCID:
PMC4110172
DOI:
10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.12.022
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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