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Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2014 Jun;65(4):465-9. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2013.873890. Epub 2014 Jan 28.

Quantification of caffeine, trigonelline and nicotinic acid in espresso coffee: the influence of espresso machines and coffee cultivars.

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School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino , Camerino , Italy , and.


Caffeine, trigonelline and nicotinic acid are important bioactive constituents of coffee. In this work, the combination of different water temperatures and pressures in the settings of the espresso coffee (EC) machine was evaluated, to assess how these factors influence how effectively caffeine, trigonelline and nicotinic acid are extracted from both Arabica and Robusta samples. The proposed analytical method, based on a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system coupled to a variable wavelength detector (VWD), showed good linearity (R²> 0.9985) and good recoveries (71-92%); after validation for three monitored compounds, the method was used to analyze 20 commercial samples. The combination of a temperature of 92 °C and pressure at 7 or 9 bar seems to be the ideal setting for the most efficient extraction of these compounds and consequently for their intake; the compound extracted in the greatest quantity was caffeine, which was in the range of 116.87-199.68 mg in a 25 ml cup of coffee.


Arabica coffee; Robusta coffee; caffeine; espresso coffee machine; extraction pressure; extraction temperature

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