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PLoS Genet. 2014 Jan;10(1):e1004062. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004062. Epub 2014 Jan 23.

Functional divergence and evolutionary turnover in mammalian phosphoproteomes.

Author information

1
Département de Biologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada ; Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, Canada ; PROTEO, The Quebec Research Network on Protein Function, Structure and Engineering, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.

Abstract

Protein phosphorylation is a key mechanism to regulate protein functions. However, the contribution of this protein modification to species divergence is still largely unknown. Here, we studied the evolution of mammalian phosphoregulation by comparing the human and mouse phosphoproteomes. We found that 84% of the positions that are phosphorylated in one species or the other are conserved at the residue level. Twenty percent of these conserved sites are phosphorylated in both species. This proportion is 2.5 times more than expected by chance alone, suggesting that purifying selection is preserving phosphoregulation. However, we show that the majority of the sites that are conserved at the residue level are differentially phosphorylated between species. These sites likely result from false-negative identifications due to incomplete experimental coverage, false-positive identifications and non-functional sites. In addition, our results suggest that at least 5% of them are likely to be true differentially phosphorylated sites and may thus contribute to the divergence in phosphorylation networks between mouse and humans and this, despite residue conservation between orthologous proteins. We also showed that evolutionary turnover of phosphosites at adjacent positions (in a distance range of up to 40 amino acids) in human or mouse leads to an over estimation of the divergence in phosphoregulation between these two species. These sites tend to be phosphorylated by the same kinases, supporting the hypothesis that they are functionally redundant. Our results support the hypothesis that the evolutionary turnover of phosphorylation sites contributes to the divergence in phosphorylation profiles while preserving phosphoregulation. Overall, our study provides advanced analyses of mammalian phosphoproteomes and a framework for the study of their contribution to phenotypic evolution.

PMID:
24465218
PMCID:
PMC3900387
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pgen.1004062
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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