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Nutr Res. 2014 Feb;34(2):106-15. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2013.12.005. Epub 2014 Jan 6.

Mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive effects of garlic bioactives.

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Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.
Department of Biochemistry, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, USA.
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar. Electronic address:


Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide with hypertension being a major contributing factor to cardiovascular disease-associated mortality. On a population level, non-pharmacological approaches, such as alternative/complementary medicine, including phytochemicals, have the potential to ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors, including high blood pressure. Several epidemiological studies suggest an antihypertensive effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and of many its bioactive components. The aim of this review is to present an in-depth discussion regarding the molecular, biochemical and cellular rationale underlying the antihypertensive properties of garlic and its bioactive constituents with a primary focus on S-allyl cysteine and allicin. Key studies, largely from PubMed, were selected and screened to develop a comprehensive understanding of the specific role of garlic and its bioactive constituents in the management of hypertension. We also reviewed recent advances focusing on the role of garlic bioactives, S-allyl cysteine and allicin, in modulating various parameters implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. These parameters include oxidative stress, nitric oxide bioavailability, hydrogen sulfide production, angiotensin converting enzyme activity, expression of nuclear factor-κB and the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. This review suggests that garlic and garlic derived bioactives have significant medicinal properties with the potential for ameliorating hypertension and associated morbidity; however, further clinical and epidemiological studies are required to determine completely the specific physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved in disease prevention and management.


ACE; Allicin; Allium sativum; Angiotensin-converting enzyme; CVD; Cardiovascular disease; DBP; Diastolic blood pressure; Hypertension; S-Allyl Cysteine; S-Allyl cysteine; SAC; SBP; Systolic blood pressure; VSMC; Vascular smooth muscle cell; garlic

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