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Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci. 2013 Oct;3(4):250-5. doi: 10.4103/2229-5151.124128.

Drug utilization pattern in critical care unit in a tertiary care teaching hospital in India.

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Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Bhavnagar, India.
Department of Pharmacology, GMERS Medical College, Gotri, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.



The aim of this study is to evaluate the drug utilization pattern and pharmacoeconomic analysis in critical care unit (CCU).


Indoor case papers of patients admitted in CCU between January 2008 and December 2010 were analyzed for demographic variables; indications; duration of CCU stay; proportion of common drugs used. Use of antimicrobials was evaluated based on the culture report and empirical regimen used. Defined daily dose (DDD)/100 bed-days were calculated. Various World Health Organization prescribing indicators were evaluated. Cost of drugs was calculated from Indian Drug Review (2010).


A total of 397 cases were evaluated with a mean age of 44.62 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 42.56-46.69). Average duration of CCU stay was 4.15 days (95% CI: 3.79-4.51). The average number of drugs prescribed per patient was 13.54 (95% CI: 13.05-14.04). Total drug utilization in terms of DDD/100 bed-days was 226.27. Metronidazole, cefotaxime, atropine, adrenaline, dopamine, dobutamine, deriphyllin, ranitidine, metoclopramide and furosemide were prescribed in more than 30% cases. Number of antimicrobials prescribed per patient was 2.50 (95% CI: 2.37-2.66). Cefotaxime + metronidazole (26.70%) were the most common empirical regimen used. Average cost of treatment per patient was Rs 3225.70 (95% CI: 2749.8-3701.6). Higher economic burden was noted among expired patients and admitted due to medical + surgical indication (P < 0.05).


Poly-pharmacy and use of antimicrobials without culture report is a common problem in CCU.


Antimicrobial resistance; critical care unit; drug utilization research; pharmacoeconomic; pharmacoepidemiology

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