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South Asian J Cancer. 2013 Oct;2(4):272-7. doi: 10.4103/2278-330X.119895.

Denosumab: A comprehensive review.

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Department of Medical Oncology, Dubai Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.


The clinical sequelae from bone metastases, termed skeletal-related events (SREs), are among the most frequent and debilitating complications in patients with advanced cancer. Bone metastases are characterized by pathologically increased osteoclast activity, and accumulating evidence indicates that tumor cells interact within the bone to stimulate the receptor activator of nuclear factor kB (RANK)-RANK ligand (RANKL) pathway. RANKL is an essential mediator of osteoclast formation, function, and survival. Because of the central role of RANKL in cancer-induced bone destruction, the inhibition of RANKL has the potential to result in the reduction of pathologic bone resorption. Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody specific for RANKL that inhibits the formation, activation, and survival of osteoclasts. This in turn decreases bone resorption and reduces cancer-induced bone destruction. In this review, we give an overview of the drug Denosumab with its history, mechanism of action, clinical trial data, adverse effects, and future challenges.


Bone metastasis; denosumab; skeletal-related events

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