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PLoS One. 2014 Jan 16;9(1):e85970. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085970. eCollection 2014.

Fasting for 24 hours heightens reward from food and food-related cues.

Author information

1
Children's Hospital of Eastern Research Institute Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
2
School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada ; Children's Hospital of Eastern Research Institute Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
3
University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
4
School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

We examined the impact of a 24 hour complete fast (vs. fed state) on two measures of food reward: 1) 'wanting', as measured by response to food images and by the relative-reinforcing value of food (RRV), and 2) 'liking', as measured by response to food images and the hedonic evaluation of foods consumed.

METHODS:

Utilizing a randomized crossover design, 15 subjects (9 male; 6 female) aged 28.6±4.5 yrs with body mass index 25.3±1.4 kg/m(2) were randomized and counterbalanced to normal feeding (FED) and 24-hour fast (FASTED) conditions. Trait characteristics were measured with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. Two computer tasks measured food reward: 1) RRV progressive ratio task, 2) explicit 'liking' and 'wanting' (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire, LFPQ). Also measured were ad libitum energy intake (EI; buffet) and food 'liking' (visual analogue scale) of personalized stimuli.

RESULTS:

There were no significant anthropometric changes between conditions. Appetite scores, hedonic ratings of 'liking', and ad libitum EI all significantly increased under the FASTED condition (p<0.05). Under the FASTED condition there were significant increases in the RRV of snack foods; similarly, explicit 'wanting' and 'liking' significantly increased for all food categories. 'Liking' of sweet foods remained high across-meals under FASTED, but savory foods decreased in hedonic saliency.

CONCLUSION:

Relative to a fed state, we observed an increase in hedonic ratings of food, the rewarding value of food, and food intake after a 24 hr fast. Alliesthesia to food and food cues is suggested by heightened hedonic ratings under the FASTED condition relative to FED.

PMID:
24454949
PMCID:
PMC3894194
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0085970
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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