Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
PLoS One. 2014 Jan 14;9(1):e85295. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085295. eCollection 2014.

Density, destinations or both? A comparison of measures of walkability in relation to transportation behaviors, obesity and diabetes in Toronto, Canada.

Author information

  • 1Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada ; Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada ; Department of Family and Community Medicine, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada ; Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada ; Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  • 2Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada ; Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  • 3Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  • 4Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada ; Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada ; Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  • 5Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada ; Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  • 6Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada ; Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada ; Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Erratum in

  • PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e91485. Shriqui, Vered Kaufman [corrected to Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered].

Abstract

The design of suburban communities encourages car dependency and discourages walking, characteristics that have been implicated in the rise of obesity. Walkability measures have been developed to capture these features of urban built environments. Our objective was to examine the individual and combined associations of residential density and the presence of walkable destinations, two of the most commonly used and potentially modifiable components of walkability measures, with transportation, overweight, obesity, and diabetes. We examined associations between a previously published walkability measure and transportation behaviors and health outcomes in Toronto, Canada, a city of 2.6 million people in 2011. Data sources included the Canada census, a transportation survey, a national health survey and a validated administrative diabetes database. We depicted interactions between residential density and the availability of walkable destinations graphically and examined them statistically using general linear modeling. Individuals living in more walkable areas were more than twice as likely to walk, bicycle or use public transit and were significantly less likely to drive or own a vehicle compared with those living in less walkable areas. Individuals in less walkable areas were up to one-third more likely to be obese or to have diabetes. Residential density and the availability of walkable destinations were each significantly associated with transportation and health outcomes. The combination of high levels of both measures was associated with the highest levels of walking or bicycling (p<0.0001) and public transit use (p<0.0026) and the lowest levels of automobile trips (p<0.0001), and diabetes prevalence (p<0.0001). We conclude that both residential density and the availability of walkable destinations are good measures of urban walkability and can be recommended for use by policy-makers, planners and public health officials. In our setting, the combination of both factors provided additional explanatory power.

PMID:
24454837
PMCID:
PMC3891889
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0085295
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center