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Child Youth Serv. 2013 Oct;34(4):360-386.

Trust-Based Relational Intervention (TBRI): A Systemic Approach to Complex Developmental Trauma.

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Institute of Child Development, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas, USA.
Center for Applied Psychology, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas, USA.


Children and youth who have experienced foster care or orphanage-rearing have often experienced complex developmental trauma, demonstrating an interactive set of psychological and behavioral issues. Trust-Based Relational Intervention (TBRI) is a therapeutic model that trains caregivers to provide effective support and treatment for at-risk children. TBRI has been applied in orphanages, courts, residential treatment facilities, group homes, foster and adoptive homes, churches, and schools. It has been used effectively with children and youth of all ages and all risk levels. This article provides the research base for TBRI and examples of how it is applied.


adoption; complex developmental trauma; foster care; trauma-informed intervention

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