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J Virol. 2014 Apr;88(8):3925-41. doi: 10.1128/JVI.03741-13. Epub 2014 Jan 22.

Fusion activation through attachment protein stalk domains indicates a conserved core mechanism of paramyxovirus entry into cells.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Biosciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA.

Abstract

Paramyxoviruses are a large family of membrane-enveloped negative-stranded RNA viruses causing important diseases in humans and animals. Two viral integral membrane glycoproteins (fusion [F] and attachment [HN, H, or G]) mediate a concerted process of host receptor recognition, followed by the fusion of viral and cellular membranes, resulting in viral nucleocapsid entry into the cytoplasm. However, the sequence of events that closely links the timing of receptor recognition by HN, H, or G and the "triggering" interaction of the attachment protein with F is unclear. F activation results in F undergoing a series of irreversible conformational rearrangements to bring about membrane merger and virus entry. By extensive study of properties of multiple paramyxovirus HN proteins, we show that key features of F activation, including the F-activating regions of HN proteins, flexibility within this F-activating region, and changes in globular head-stalk interactions are highly conserved. These results, together with functionally active "headless" mumps and Newcastle disease virus HN proteins, provide insights into the F-triggering process. Based on these data and very recently published data for morbillivirus H and henipavirus G proteins, we extend our recently proposed "stalk exposure model" to other paramyxoviruses and propose an "induced fit" hypothesis for F-HN/H/G interactions as conserved core mechanisms of paramyxovirus-mediated membrane fusion.

IMPORTANCE:

Paramyxoviruses are a large family of membrane-enveloped negative-stranded RNA viruses causing important diseases in humans and animals. Two viral integral membrane glycoproteins (fusion [F] and attachment [HN, H, or G]) mediate a concerted process of host receptor recognition, followed by the fusion of viral and cellular membranes. We describe here the molecular mechanism by which HN activates the F protein such that virus-cell fusion is controlled and occurs at the right time and the right place. We extend our recently proposed "stalk exposure model" first proposed for parainfluenza virus 5 to other paramyxoviruses and propose an "induced fit" hypothesis for F-HN/H/G interactions as conserved core mechanisms of paramyxovirus-mediated membrane fusion.

PMID:
24453369
PMCID:
PMC3993720
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.03741-13
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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