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Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Feb;20(2):217-24. doi: 10.3201/eid2002.121797.

Subtyping Cryptosporidium ubiquitum,a zoonotic pathogen emerging in humans.


Cryptosporidium ubiquitum is an emerging zoonotic pathogen. In the past, it was not possible to identify an association between cases of human and animal infection. We conducted a genomic survey of the species, developed a subtyping tool targeting the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene, and identified 6 subtype families (XIIa-XIIf) of C. ubiquitum. Host adaptation was apparent at the gp60 locus; subtype XIIa was found in ruminants worldwide, subtype families XIIb-XIId were found in rodents in the United States, and XIIe and XIIf were found in rodents in the Slovak Republic. Humans in the United States were infected with isolates of subtypes XIIb-XIId, whereas those in other areas were infected primarily with subtype XIIa isolates. In addition, subtype families XIIb and XIId were detected in drinking source water in the United States. Contact with C. ubiquitum-infected sheep and drinking water contaminated by infected wildlife could be sources of human infections.


Cryptosporidiosis; Cryptosporidium; epidemiology; genomics; horse; humans; molecular typing,whole genome sequencing; parasites; raccoon; rodents; ruminants; sifaka; zoonoses

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