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Nat Commun. 2014;5:3074. doi: 10.1038/ncomms4074.

Quantum computing on encrypted data.

Author information

1
1] Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 [2] Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 [3].
2
1] Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 [2] Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Ottawa, 585 King Edward, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5 [3].
3
1] Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 [2] National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA.
4
1] Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 [2] Centre for Ultrahigh Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), MQ Photonics Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales 2109, Australia.
5
1] Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 [2] Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1.
6
1] Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 [2] Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Max F. Perutz Laboratories GmbH, Dr-Bohr-Gasse 7-9, Vienna 1030, Austria.

Abstract

The ability to perform computations on encrypted data is a powerful tool for protecting privacy. Recently, protocols to achieve this on classical computing systems have been found. Here, we present an efficient solution to the quantum analogue of this problem that enables arbitrary quantum computations to be carried out on encrypted quantum data. We prove that an untrusted server can implement a universal set of quantum gates on encrypted quantum bits (qubits) without learning any information about the inputs, while the client, knowing the decryption key, can easily decrypt the results of the computation. We experimentally demonstrate, using single photons and linear optics, the encryption and decryption scheme on a set of gates sufficient for arbitrary quantum computations. As our protocol requires few extra resources compared with other schemes it can be easily incorporated into the design of future quantum servers. These results will play a key role in enabling the development of secure distributed quantum systems.

PMID:
24445949
DOI:
10.1038/ncomms4074

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