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Toxicol Ind Health. 2016 May;32(5):945-52. doi: 10.1177/0748233713518601. Epub 2014 Jan 20.

Evaluation of intravenous lipid emulsion on haloperidol-induced hypotension in rabbits.

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Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Islamic Republic of Iran.
Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Islamic Republic of Iran


There are many reports on the effects of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) as an antidote in drug toxicity. Haloperidol (HAL) is a butyrophenone antipsychotic agent which is highly lipophilic. Hypotension is an important adverse effect of HAL administration and overdose. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial hemodynamic effects of ILE on acute HAL poisoning. We used six groups of five male rabbits. Two groups received aseptic distilled water intravenously followed by infusion of 18.6 ml/kg normal saline, as negative control group, or ILE 20% after 0.5 h. The third group received 18.6 ml/kg normal saline after HAL infusion (2.6 mg/kg). The other three groups received ILE 20% solution (6, 12, and 18.6 ml/kg) following HAL (2.6 mg/kg) administration. We measured blood pressure at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 24 h after starting HAL administration, from left forelimb using a noninvasive method that was carried out automatically with a neonatal intensive care unit bedside monitor. ILE 20% at the dose of 18 ml/kg could return the reduced mean arterial pressure and diastolic blood pressure sooner than the other doses and normal saline. In conclusion, ILE could reverse HAL-induced hypotension same as the other lipophilic drugs. However, the clinical use of ILE for this purpose needs more evaluation to determine its exact indication and safety.


Haloperidol; acute toxicity; blood pressure; intravenous lipid emulsion; rabbit

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