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Stem Cells Transl Med. 2014 Mar;3(3):290-8. doi: 10.5966/sctm.2013-0127. Epub 2014 Jan 17.

Concise review: parthenote stem cells for regenerative medicine: genetic, epigenetic, and developmental features.

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Departments of Cell and Developmental Biology and Molecular and Medical Genetics, and Program in Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, School of Medicine, and Divisions of Reproductive and Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, and Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.


Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the potential to provide unlimited cells and tissues for regenerative medicine. ESCs derived from fertilized embryos, however, will most likely be rejected by a patient's immune system unless appropriately immunomatched. Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) genetically identical to a patient can now be established by reprogramming of somatic cells. However, practical applications of PSCs for personalized therapies are projected to be unfeasible because of the enormous cost and time required to produce clinical-grade cells for each patient. ESCs derived from parthenogenetic embryos (pESCs) that are homozygous for human leukocyte antigens may serve as an attractive alternative for immunomatched therapies for a large population of patients. In this study, we describe the biology and genetic nature of mammalian parthenogenesis and review potential advantages and limitations of pESCs for cell-based therapies.


Histocompatibility; Imprinting; Parthenogenesis; Pluripotent stem cells

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