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Cell Mol Life Sci. 2014 Jun;71(12):2271-88. doi: 10.1007/s00018-013-1554-3. Epub 2014 Jan 18.

Embryonic origins of human vascular smooth muscle cells: implications for in vitro modeling and clinical application.

Author information

1
Anne McLaren Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0SZ, UK, ss661@cam.ac.uk.

Abstract

Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) arise from multiple origins during development, raising the possibility that differences in embryological origins between SMCs could contribute to site-specific localization of vascular diseases. In this review, we first examine the developmental pathways and embryological origins of vascular SMCs and then discuss in vitro strategies for deriving SMCs from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We then review in detail the potential for vascular disease modeling using iPSC-derived SMCs and consider the pathological implications of heterogeneous embryonic origins. Finally, we touch upon the role of human ESC-derived SMCs in therapeutic revascularization and the challenges remaining before regenerative medicine using ESC- or iPSC-derived cells comes of age.

PMID:
24442477
PMCID:
PMC4031394
DOI:
10.1007/s00018-013-1554-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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