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Cryobiology. 2014 Apr;68(2):185-93. doi: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2014.01.002. Epub 2014 Jan 17.

Cryopreservation of sperm in farmed Australian greenlip abalone Haliotis laevigata.

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School of Biological Sciences, The Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia 5042, Australia.
Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023, China.
School of Biological Sciences, The Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia 5042, Australia; Nofima, PO Box 210, Ås, Norway.
South Australian Research and Development Institute, and Marine Innovation Southern Australia, West Beach, South Australia 5024, Australia. Electronic address:


This study investigated factors important to the development of the liquid nitrogen (LN) vapor sperm cryopreservation technique in farmed greenlip abalone Haliotis laevigata, including (1) cryoprotectant agent (CPA) toxicity; (2) cooling temperature (height above LN surface); (3) thawing temperature; (4) sperm to egg ratio; and (5) sugar supplementation, using sperm motility, fertilization rate or integrity/potential of sperm components and organelles as quality assessment indicators. Results suggested that among the single CPAs evaluated 6% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) would be the most suitable for sperm cryopreservation in this species. The highest post-thaw sperm motility was achieved with the sperm that had been exposed to LN vapor for 10min at 5.2cm above the LN surface, thawed and recovered in 60 and 18°C seawater bathes, respectively after at least 2h storage in LN. The highest fertilization rates were achieved at a sperm to egg ratio of 10,000:1 or 15,000:1. Addition of 1% glucose or 2% sucrose produced significantly higher post-thaw sperm motility than 6% Me2SO alone. Among the three cryoprotectant solutions further trialled, 6% Me2SO+1% glucose produced the highest fertilization rate of 83.6±3.7%. Evaluation of sperm has shown that the addition of glucose could significantly improve the sperm plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential. These results demonstrated a positive role of glucose in the improvement of sperm cryopreservation in farmed greenlip abalone.


Farmed greenlip abalone; Glucose; Haliotis laevigata; Sperm cryopreservation

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