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Heart Rhythm. 2014 Apr;11(4):587-94. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2014.01.013. Epub 2014 Jan 17.

Noninvasive electrocardiographic mapping to guide ablation of outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias.

Author information

Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
Cardioinsight Technologies, Cleveland, Ohio.
Department of Cardiac Electrophysiology, St. Mary's and Hammersmith Hospitals, Imperial College NHS Healthcare Trust.
Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:



Localizing the origin of outflow tract ventricular tachycardias (OTVT) is hindered by lack of accuracy of electrocardiographic (ECG) algorithms and infrequent spontaneous premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) during electrophysiological studies.


To prospectively assess the performance of noninvasive electrocardiographic mapping (ECM) in the pre-/periprocedural localization of OTVT origin to guide ablation and to compare the accuracy of ECM with that of published ECG algorithms.


Patients with symptomatic OTVT/PVCs undergoing clinically indicated ablation were recruited. The OTVT/PVC origin was mapped preprocedurally by using ECM, and 3 published ECG algorithms were applied to the 12-lead ECG by 3 blinded electrophysiologists. Ablation was guided by using ECM. The OTVT/PVC origin was defined as the site where ablation caused arrhythmia suppression. Acute success was defined as abolition of ectopy after ablation. Medium-term success was defined as the abolition of symptoms and reduction of PVC to less than 1000 per day documented on Holter monitoring within 6 months.


In 24 patients (mean age 50 ± 18 years) recruited ECM successfully identified OTVT/PVC origin in 23/24 (96%) (right ventricular outflow tract, 18; left ventricular outflow tract, 6), sublocalizing correctly in 100% of this cohort. Acute ablation success was achieved in 100% of the cases with medium-term success in 22 of 24 patients. PVC burden reduced from 21,837 ± 23,241 to 1143 ± 4039 (P < .0001). ECG algorithms identified the correct chamber of origin in 50%-88% of the patients and sublocalized within the right ventricular outflow tract (septum vs free-wall) in 37%-58%.


ECM can accurately identify OTVT/PVC origin in the left and the right ventricle pre- and periprocedurally to guide catheter ablation with an accuracy superior to that of published ECG algorithms.


Outflow tract tachycardia; Premature ventricular complex; Ventricular tachycardia

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