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Trends Mol Med. 2014 Mar;20(3):154-65. doi: 10.1016/j.molmed.2013.12.002. Epub 2014 Jan 14.

Pathomechanisms: homeostatic chemokines in health, tissue regeneration, and progressive diseases.

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Nephrologisches Zentrum, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität, München, Germany. Electronic address:
Excellence Centre for Research, Transfer, and High Education for the Development of De Novo Therapies (DENOTHE), University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), via Manzoni 113, 20089, Rozzano, Italy; University of Milan, Department of Translational Medicine, 20089 Rozzano, Italy.


Homeostatic chemokines control stem and progenitor cell migration and activation during vasculogenesis and organ development. They orchestrate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homing to their bone marrow niches and direct immature lymphocytes to a series of maturation sites within lymphoid organs. Along these lines, homeostatic chemokines regulate the niches of peripheral committed progenitor cell populations for tissue renewal. These biological functions support neovascularization and wound healing, including the recruitment of endothelial and other progenitor cells from the bone marrow. Here, we summarize the roles of homeostatic chemokines, their signaling receptors, and atypical decoy receptors during homeostasis and tissue regeneration in order to better understand their pathogenic roles in disease, for example, in diabetes complications, cancer, autoimmunity, epithelial hyperplasia, or hypertrophic scarring and fibrosis.


chemokine receptor; inflammation; malignancy; regeneration; tissue damage

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