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J Adolesc. 2014 Feb;37(2):185-96. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.12.001. Epub 2014 Jan 3.

Latino and European American early adolescents' exposure to music with substance-use references: examining parent-child communication as a moderator.

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Department of Communication, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States. Electronic address:
Department of Communication, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States.
Department of Communication, Saint Vincent College, United States.


This study hypothesized that frequent exposure to and attention to music with substance-use references would be indirectly related to alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana use through pro-substance-use beliefs (e.g., norms, outcome expectancies, and refusal efficacy). Parent-child communication, however, would attenuate such associations, which would differ by ethnicity. Multigroup mediation and moderation analyses were conducted, using cross-sectional survey data from 253 Latino and 308 European American 6th-8th grades students. For Latino and European American early adolescents, best-friend-injunctive norms and weak refusal efficacy were significant mediators, but not positive outcome expectancies. Descriptive norms were a significant mediator, but only for European American early adolescents. Although targeted parent-child communication and parental mediation did not moderate the associations between the music-exposure variables and the pro-substance-use beliefs variables, targeted parent-child communication attenuated the association between listening to favorite songs and alcohol consumption. Parental mediation attenuated the association between attention to music and alcohol consumption.


Latino; Music; Parent–child communication; Social cognitive theory; Substance use; Theory of planned behavior

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