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Global Spine J. 2013 Jun;3(2):75-84. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1337124. Epub 2013 Mar 19.

Epidemiological trends of spine trauma: an Australian level 1 trauma centre study.

Author information

  • 1Department of Neurosurgery, The Alfred, Melbourne, Australia ; Trauma Service, The Alfred, Melbourne, Australia ; Department of Surgery, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
  • 2Department of Neurosurgery, The Alfred, Melbourne, Australia ; Department of Surgery, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
  • 3Trauma Service, The Alfred, Melbourne, Australia ; Department of Emergency Medicine, The Alfred, Melbourne, Australia ; Department of Surgery, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
  • 4Department of Orthopaedics, The Alfred, Melbourne, Australia ; Department of Surgery, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia ; Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR), Melbourne, Australia.

Abstract

Knowledge of current epidemiology and spine trauma trends assists in public resource allocation, fine-tuning of primary prevention methods, and benchmarking purposes. Data on all patients with traumatic spine injuries admitted to the Alfred Hospital, Melbourne between May 1, 2009, and January 1, 2011, were collected from the Alfred Trauma Registry, Alfred Health medical database, and Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry. Epidemiological trends were analyzed as a general cohort, with comparison cohorts of nonsurvivors versus survivors and elderly versus nonelderly. Linear regression analysis was utilized to demonstrate trends with statistical significance. There were 965 patients with traumatic spine injuries with 2,333 spine trauma levels. The general cohort showed a trimodal age distribution, male-to-female ratio of 2:2, motor vehicle accidents as the primary spine trauma mechanism, 47.7% patients with severe polytrauma as graded using the Injury Severity Score (ISS), 17.3% with traumatic brain injury (TBI), the majority of patients with one spine injury level, 7% neurological deficit rate, 12.8% spine trauma operative rate, and 5.2% mortality rate. Variables with statistical significance trending toward mortality were the elderly, motor vehicle occupants, severe ISS, TBI, C1-2 dissociations, and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A, B, and C neurological grades. Variables with statistical significance trending toward the elderly were females; low falls; one spine injury level; type 2 odontoid fractures; subaxial cervical spine distraction injuries; ASIA A, B, and C neurological grades; and patients without neurological deficits. Of the general cohort, 50.3% of spine trauma survivors were discharged home, and 48.1% were discharged to rehabilitation facilities. This study provides baseline spine trauma epidemiological data. The trimodal age distribution of patients with traumatic spine injuries calls for further studies and intervention targeted toward the 46- to 55-year age group as this group represents the main providers of financial and social security. The study's unique feature of delineating variables with statistical significance trending toward both mortality and the elderly also provides useful data to guide future research studies, benchmarking, public health policy, and efficient resource allocation for the management of spine trauma.

KEYWORDS:

demographics; epidemiology; neurological status; prevention; registry; spinal injury characteristics; spine trauma

PMID:
24436855
PMCID:
PMC3854579
DOI:
10.1055/s-0033-1337124
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