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Mol Med Rep. 2014 Mar;9(3):894-8. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2014.1903. Epub 2014 Jan 17.

Impact of the 4G/5G polymorphism in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene on primary nephrotic syndrome.

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Division of Nephrology, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510405, P.R. China.


The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the four guanosines (4G)/five guanosines (5G) polymorphism in the gene coding for plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) affects the clinical features of primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS). A cohort of 200 biopsy-diagnosed PNS patients was studied, with 40 healthy subjects as controls. The PAI-1 gene polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Associations between the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and clinical features and pathological types of PNS were analyzed. The results indicated that the PAI-1 genotype distribution is significantly different between patients with PNS and healthy controls, with significantly higher numbers of the 4G/4G genotype and lower numbers of the 5G5G genotype detected in PNS patients compared to controls (both P<0.05). The frequency of the 4G allele was also significantly higher in PNS patients compared to healthy controls (P<0.01). Among the different pathological types of PNS, IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and membranous nephropathy (MN) were associated with significantly increased frequencies of the 4G/4G and 4G/5G genotypes, as well as of the 4G allele. The increased 4G frequency was also detected in patients with minimal change disease (MCD). Significantly increased international normalized ratio (INR) and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were observed in 4G/4G compared to 5G/5G PNS subjects. The response to steroids was not significantly different among the three genotypes. In conclusion, the 4G allele of the PAI-1 gene appears to be associated with PNS, especially in MN and IgAN patients. These findings suggest that specific targeting may be required for the treatment of PNS patients with the 4G/4G genotype.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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