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Am J Public Health. 2014 Dec;104(12):2409-16. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301542. Epub 2014 Jan 16.

Sodium intake in a cross-sectional, representative sample of New York City adults.

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At the time of the study, Sonia Y. Angell, Stella Yi, Christine J. Curtis, and Lynn D. Silver were with the Bureau of Chronic Disease Prevention; Donna Eisenhower, Bonnie D. Kerker, and Katherine Bartley were with the Bureau of Epidemiology Services; and Thomas A. Farley was with the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York, NY.



We estimated sodium intake, which is associated with elevated blood pressure, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and assessed its association with related variables among New York City adults.


In 2010 we conducted a cross-sectional, population-based survey of 1656 adults, the Heart Follow-Up Study, that collected self-reported health information, measured blood pressure, and obtained sodium, potassium, and creatinine values from 24-hour urine collections.


Mean daily sodium intake was 3239 milligrams per day; 81% of participants exceeded their recommended limit. Sodium intake was higher in non-Hispanic Blacks (3477 mg/d) and Hispanics (3395 mg/d) than in non-Hispanic Whites (3066 mg/d; both Pā€‰<ā€‰.05). Higher sodium intake was associated with higher blood pressure in adjusted models, and this association varied by race/ethnicity.


Higher sodium intake among non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics than among Whites was not previously documented in population surveys relying on self-report. These results demonstrate the feasibility of 24-hour urine collection for the purposes of research, surveillance, and program evaluation.

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