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Nat Prod Commun. 2013 Nov;8(11):1509-12.

In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Ligustrum vulgare extracts and their analytical characterization.

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Department of Pharmacognosy and Botany, Comenius University, Odbojárov 10, SK-832 32 Bratislava, Slovakia.
lnstitute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 4/1, A-8010 Graz, Austria.


Interest in the anti-inflammatory effects of Ligustrum vulgare L., which has been used traditionally in China and Japan prompted us to determine antiinflammatory effects of the plant's compounds in leukocytes. The leaves of L. vulgare were used to prepare a decoction which was successively extracted with organic solvents (dichloromethane (DCM), n-butanol, ethyl acetate) using liquid-liquid partition. Extracts were tested for inhibition of LTB4, resp. PGE2 biosynthesis. Each extract was evaluated for its in vitro cyclooxygenase-1/2 (COX-1/2) inhibitory activity using assays with purified COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes, as well as for their LTB4 formation inhibitory activity using an assay with activated human neutrophil granulocytes. All extracts reported inhibitory actions against COXs in comparison with the synthetic inhibitors NS-398 (IC50 = 2.6 microM) and indomethacin (IC50 = 0.9 microM). The dichloromethane extract of privet leaves showed a considerable inhibitory effect against COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme activity. The DCM extract revealed 2.7 times higher inhibitory activity against LTB4 formation in comparison with the known specific LT inhibitor zileuton (IC50 = 5.0 microM). Additionally, oleuropein and echinacoside were detected by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS in the Ligustrum vulgare leaves. Both compounds exhibited weak inhibitory activity on cyclooxygenases and leukotriene formation.

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