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PLoS One. 2014 Jan 10;9(1):e85479. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085479. eCollection 2014.

The association of pioglitazone and urinary tract disease in type 2 diabetic Taiwanese: bladder cancer and chronic kidney disease.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan ; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan ; Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
2
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan ; Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
3
Statistical Analysis Laboratory, Department of Clinical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
4
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan ; Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan ; Graduate Institute of Medical Genetics, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Although studies have shown an association between pioglitazone and bladder cancer, the associated factors have not been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that may link pioglitazone to bladder cancer.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

In total, 34,970 study subjects were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database in 2003 with follow-up from 2005 to 2009. The demographic characteristics of patients who had used and had never used pioglitazone, including age, sex, diabetes duration, urinary tract disease, nephropathy, bladder cancer, and cumulative dose and duration of pioglitazone therapy, were analyzed using the χ2 test. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the independent effects of pioglitazone on bladder cancer and newly developed chronic kidney disease.

RESULTS:

Among 3,497 ever users and 31,473 never users of pioglitazone, the respective incident cases of bladder cancer were 12 (0.4%) and 72 (0.2%), and for newly developed chronic kidney disease 245 (8.1%) and 663 (2.3%), respectively. Ever use of pioglitazone [1.59(1.32-1.91)], cumulative dose of pioglitazone <10,500 mg [1.69 (1.37-2.01)] and >10,500 mg [1.34 (1.04-1.73)], and duration of therapy <12 months [1.68 (1.36-2.08)] and >12 months [1.39 (1.09-1.76)] were associated with the development of chronic kidney disease.

CONCLUSIONS:

There was no association of pioglitazone use with bladder cancer development, however, there was an association with an increased risk of newly developed chronic kidney disease.

PMID:
24427312
PMCID:
PMC3888419
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0085479
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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