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Indian J Clin Biochem. 2013 Apr;28(2):147-51. doi: 10.1007/s12291-012-0240-9. Epub 2012 Jul 28.

Importance of Serum Copper and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF-A) Levels in Postmenopausal Bleeding.

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Department of Biochemistry, Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences, Sreepuram, Narkatpally, Nalgonda, 508 254 Andhra Pradesh India.
Chalmeda Anandrao Institute of Medical Sciences, Bommakal, Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh India.
Department of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, 576104 Karnataka India.


The main aim of this study is association of serum copper and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) in postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) patients. Blood samples were collected from female patients suffering with postmenopausal bleeding (n = 50) as well as healthy females as controls (n = 50). Serum copper levels were estimated by spectrophotometric method and serum VEGF-A by ELISA technique and compared with ultrasonographic measurement of endometrial thickness in both patients and controls. A significant increase in serum copper levels and an almost twofold increase in serum VEGF-A was observed in DUB patients when compared with controls. Correlation (r) between serum VEGF-A levels and endometrial thickness was 0.96. Odds ratio for copper, VEGF-A and combination of copper and VEGF-A was 0.0426, 0.0947 and 0.0313 respectively, in all these cases odds ratio was <1. The abnormal angiogenesis in PMB could be due to increased serum copper levels,which in turn stimulates factors like VEGF-A, thereby causing an increase in endometrial growth.


ELISA; Postmenopausal bleeding; Serum copper; VEGF-A; Vascular endothelial growth factor

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