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J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2014 Aug;102(6):1148-56. doi: 10.1002/jbm.b.33096. Epub 2014 Jan 15.

Optimization and characterization of stable lipid-based, oxygen-filled microbubbles by mixture design.

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Department of Cardiology, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, Enders 1228, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115; Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Enders 1228, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115.


Tissue hypoxia is a final common pathway that leads to cellular injury and death in a number of critical illnesses. Intravenous injections of self-assembling, lipid-based oxygen microbubbles (LOMs) can be used to deliver oxygen gas, preventing organ injury and death from systemic hypoxemia. However, current formulations exhibit high polydispersity indices (which may lead to microvascular obstruction) and poor shelf-lives, limiting the translational capacity of LOMs. In this study, we report our efforts to optimize LOM formulations using a mixture response surface methodology (mRSM). We study the effect of changing excipient proportions (the independent variables) on microbubble diameter and product loss (the dependent variables). By using mRSM analysis, the experimental data were fit using a reduced Scheffé linear mixture model. We demonstrate that formulations manufactured from 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, corn syrup, and water produce micron-sized microbubbles with low polydispersity indices, and decreased product loss (relative to previously described formulations) when stored at room temperature over a 30-day period. Optimized LOMs were subsequently tested for their oxygen-releasing ability and found to have similar release kinetics as prior formulations.


blood-material interface; cardiovascular; controlled release; drug delivery/release; microspheres

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