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Exp Neurol. 2014 Mar;253:197-207. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2013.12.024. Epub 2014 Jan 11.

Functional regeneration beyond the glial scar.

Author information

1
Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.
2
Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. Electronic address: jxs10@case.edu.

Abstract

Astrocytes react to CNS injury by building a dense wall of filamentous processes around the lesion. Stromal cells quickly take up residence in the lesion core and synthesize connective tissue elements that contribute to fibrosis. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells proliferate within the lesion and entrap dystrophic axon tips. Here we review evidence that this aggregate scar acts as the major barrier to regeneration of axons after injury. We also consider several exciting new interventions that allow axons to regenerate beyond the glial scar, and discuss the implications of this work for the future of regeneration biology.

KEYWORDS:

Axon growth cone; Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans; Glial scar; Hypertrophy; Regeneration; Spinal cord injury

PMID:
24424280
PMCID:
PMC3951813
DOI:
10.1016/j.expneurol.2013.12.024
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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