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Food Chem. 2014 May 15;151:248-56. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.049. Epub 2013 Nov 19.

Phytochemical divergence in 45 accessions of Terminalia ferdinandiana (Kakadu plum).

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CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Sciences, 11 Julius Avenue, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia. Electronic address:
CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Sciences, 11 Julius Avenue, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia; Université de La Réunion, Ecole Supérieure d'Ingénieurs Réunion Océan Indien (E.S.I.R.O.I.), Spécialité Agroalimentaire, Parc Technologique Universitaire, 2 Rue Joseph Wetzell, 97490 Sainte Clotilde, Ile de La Réunion, France.
CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Sciences, 11 Julius Avenue, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia; Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Van, Turkey.


This study investigated the variations in the levels of phenolic compounds, vitamin C, sugars and antioxidant capacities of 45 newly collected accessions of Terminalia ferdinandiana (Kakadu plum), a native Australian fruit utilised in dietary supplement industry. Pattern recognition tools, principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) were applied to understand interrelationships between the antioxidant capacities [Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)] and antioxidant groups: phenolic compounds and vitamin C. On the basis of these parameters AHC classified samples into three main groups, with accessions 2, 8, 15, 6, 3 and 5 from the Northern Territory, Australia, representing superior quality fruits combining high levels of total phenolics (505.2 to 376.1 mg GA E/g DW), vitamin C (322.2 to 173.5mg/g DW), with pronounced antioxidant capacities (FRAP: 5030.5 to 4244.9 μmol Fe(2+)/g DW; ORAC: 3861.5 to 2985.6 μmol Trolox E/g DW). Hydrolysable tannins and ellagic acid were identified as the major phenolic compounds. The levels of ellagic acid varied from 140.2 to 30.5 mg/g DW, which places Kakadu plum as a unique edible source of this compound. The levels of sugars varied from 619.0 to 130.0 mg Glu E/g DW. This study for the first time revealed a unique phytochemical profile and significant variability in phytochemical composition of Kakadu plum. These features create opportunities for selection of sources with different characteristics addressing the needs of the nutraceutical industry, food processors and the consumers of fresh fruit.


Antioxidant capacity; Kakadu plum; Phenolic compounds; Principal component analysis; Terminalia ferdinandiana; Vitamin C

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