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Percept Mot Skills. 2013 Aug;117(1):1043-52.

Color of soccer goalkeepers' uniforms influences the outcome of penalty kicks.

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Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, College Lane, University of Chichester, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 6PE, UK.
University of the West of Scotland.
University of Portsmouth.


This study examined the proposition that competing against red-clad opponents hinders the performance of soccer (football) athletes. 40 experienced players took 10 penalty kicks against a goalkeeper wearing a black jersey and, 1 week later, took 10 penalty kicks against a goalkeeper wearing either a red, green, blue, or yellow jersey. Prior to each set of kicks, participants reported their expectancy of success. Players facing red-clad goalkeepers scored on fewer penalty kicks than those facing either blue- or green-clad goalkeepers, but no differences in expectancy of success emerged. The findings indicate that athletes wearing red may have an advantage over their opponents.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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