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Percept Mot Skills. 2013 Aug;117(1):1043-52.

Color of soccer goalkeepers' uniforms influences the outcome of penalty kicks.

Author information

1
Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, College Lane, University of Chichester, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 6PE, UK. i.greenlees@chi.ac.uk
2
University of the West of Scotland.
3
University of Portsmouth.

Abstract

This study examined the proposition that competing against red-clad opponents hinders the performance of soccer (football) athletes. 40 experienced players took 10 penalty kicks against a goalkeeper wearing a black jersey and, 1 week later, took 10 penalty kicks against a goalkeeper wearing either a red, green, blue, or yellow jersey. Prior to each set of kicks, participants reported their expectancy of success. Players facing red-clad goalkeepers scored on fewer penalty kicks than those facing either blue- or green-clad goalkeepers, but no differences in expectancy of success emerged. The findings indicate that athletes wearing red may have an advantage over their opponents.

PMID:
24422335
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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