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Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 Mar 1;136:28-35. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.12.004. Epub 2013 Dec 24.

Gender and racial differences in smoking of long/ultra-long and king size cigarettes among U.S. adult smokers, NHANES 1999-2012.

Author information

1
Center for Global Tobacco Control, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, USA. Electronic address: iagaku@post.harvard.edu.
2
Center for Global Tobacco Control, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, USA.
3
Center for Global Tobacco Control, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, USA; Office of the Dean/Director, School of Oral Health Sciences, University of Limpopo, MEDUNSA Campus, Pretoria, South Africa.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cigarette rod length as a design feature may play a specific role in harm perception and tobacco use. Internal tobacco industry documents have shown targeting of females with long/ultra-long cigarettes. This study assessed trends and differences in smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes among U.S. smokers aged ≥20 years during 1999 through 2012.

METHODS:

Data were obtained from the 1999/2000 through 2011/2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The proportion of current smokers who reported using long/ultra-long cigarettes during each survey year was calculated and compared using χ(2) statistics. Linear and quadratic trends during 1999 through 2012 were assessed using binary logistic regression (p<0.05). Multi-variable analyses were performed to assess current disparities in smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes.

RESULTS:

Despite overall declines in current smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes during the 1999 through 2012 period (p<0.001 for both linear and quadratic trends), the proportion of smokers of long/ultra-long brands increased in recent years, with over a third (38.7%) of current smokers reporting smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes during 2011/2012. Current smokers of long/ultra-long cigarettes were more likely to be female compared to males (aOR=3.09; 95%CI: 2.09-4.58), of black race compared to whites (aOR=2.07; 95%CI: 1.30-3.28), or aged 45-64, or ≥65 years (aOR=2.39 and 5.27, respectively), compared to 18-24 year olds.

CONCLUSIONS:

Specific gender, age and race/ethnic characteristics of smokers of long/ultra-long cigarettes were noted, hence potentially contributing to the widening of health disparities. Cigarette rod length should be considered an important aspect of cigarette engineering/design in regulatory efforts to reduce the burden of tobacco-related disease.

KEYWORDS:

Abuse liability; Cigarettes; Design; Long; Product appeal; Slim

PMID:
24417962
PMCID:
PMC3935845
DOI:
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.12.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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