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Gerodontology. 2016 Mar;33(1):28-35. doi: 10.1111/ger.12106. Epub 2014 Jan 12.

Removing bacteria from rough surface titanium discs with chlorhexidine and additional brushing with dentifrice.

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Department of Periodontics, Seoul St Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
Graduate School of Clinical Dental Science, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.



This in vitro study was conducted: (i) to evaluate the effect of using cotton pellets soaked with chlorhexidine (CHX) on titanium surface roughness; (ii) to assess the removal of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) from resorbable blast material (RBM) titanium surfaces using CHX pellets; and (iii) to evaluate the effects of additional brushing on bacterial removal efficiency.


RBM titanium discs were treated with CHX-soaked cotton pellets, and change in surface roughness was measured using confocal microscopy. After the titanium discs were incubated with P. gingivalis for 2 days, the discs were cleaned with CHX pellets for 40 s. The quantity of remaining adherent bacteria was measured using crystal violet assay. Additional brushing was performed with dentifrice for a total of 40 s, and bacterial removal efficiency with brushing and dentifrice was evaluated using crystal violet assay and scanning electron microscopy.


The changes in surface roughness after treatment were observed by confocal microscopy. Statistically significant decrease in surface roughness was seen in CHX 40-s group (p < 0.05). Cleaning with CHX-soaked pellets resulted in significant decrease in remaining adherent bacteria. Brushing the bacteria-incubated discs with dentifrice reduced adhering bacteria. There were fewer bacteria left on the CHX-pre-treated discs compared with the brushing-only group, but there were no significant differences when compared with the brushing-only group (p > 0.05).


This study clearly showed that burnishing with CHX influenced the RBM titanium surface, and burnishing with CHX pellets and brushing with dentifrice were efficient in removing bacteria from the contaminated titanium surface.


bacteria; chlorhexidine; electron; microscopy; scanning; surface properties; titanium; toothbrushing

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