Format

Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2014 Jan 9;9(1):e84965. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084965. eCollection 2014.

Facial mimicry in 6-7 year old children with disruptive behavior disorder and ADHD.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
2
Department of Experimental Psychology, Helmholtz Research Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
3
Department of Psychiatry, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands ; Department of Child and Adolescent Studies, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age. Emotional deficits have also been shown in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

AIMS:

To examine facial mimicry in younger, 6-7 year old children with DBD and with ADHD.

METHODS:

Electromyographic (EMG) activity in response to emotional facial expressions was recorded in 47 children with DBD, 18 children with ADHD and 35 healthy developing children.

RESULTS:

All groups displayed significant facial mimicry to the emotional expressions of other children. No group differences between children with DBD, children with ADHD and healthy developing children were found. In addition, no differences in facial mimicry were found between the clinical group (i.e., all children with a diagnosis) and the typically developing group in an analysis with ADHD symptoms as a covariate, and no differences were found between the clinical children and the typically developing children with DBD symptoms as a covariate.

CONCLUSION:

Facial mimicry in children with DBD and ADHD throughout the first primary school years was unimpaired, in line with studies on empathy using other paradigms.

PMID:
24416323
PMCID:
PMC3886997
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0084965
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center