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PLoS One. 2014 Jan 8;9(1):e82507. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082507. eCollection 2014.

Diffuse brain injury induces acute post-traumatic sleep.

Author information

1
Barrow Neurological Institute at Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America ; Department of Child Health, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America ; Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America ; Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Center (SCoBIRC), University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America.
2
Department of Biology, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America.
3
Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America.
4
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America ; Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Center (SCoBIRC), University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America ; Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America.
5
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America.
6
Department of Biology, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America ; Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Center (SCoBIRC), University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America.
7
Barrow Neurological Institute at Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America ; Department of Child Health, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America ; Phoenix Veteran Affairs Healthcare System, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America ; Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America ; Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America ; Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Center (SCoBIRC), University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Clinical observations report excessive sleepiness immediately following traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, there is a lack of experimental evidence to support or refute the benefit of sleep following a brain injury. The aim of this study is to investigate acute post-traumatic sleep.

METHODS:

Sham, mild or moderate diffuse TBI was induced by midline fluid percussion injury (mFPI) in male C57BL/6J mice at 9:00 or 21:00 to evaluate injury-induced sleep behavior at sleep and wake onset, respectively. Sleep profiles were measured post-injury using a non-invasive, piezoelectric cage system. In separate cohorts of mice, inflammatory cytokines in the neocortex were quantified by immunoassay, and microglial activation was visualized by immunohistochemistry.

RESULTS:

Immediately after diffuse TBI, quantitative measures of sleep were characterized by a significant increase in sleep (>50%) for the first 6 hours post-injury, resulting from increases in sleep bout length, compared to sham. Acute post-traumatic sleep increased significantly independent of injury severity and time of injury (9:00 vs 21:00). The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β increased in brain-injured mice compared to sham over the first 9 hours post-injury. Iba-1 positive microglia were evident in brain-injured cortex at 6 hours post-injury.

CONCLUSION:

Post-traumatic sleep occurs for up to 6 hours after diffuse brain injury in the mouse regardless of injury severity or time of day. The temporal profile of secondary injury cascades may be driving the significant increase in post-traumatic sleep and contribute to the natural course of recovery through cellular repair.

PMID:
24416145
PMCID:
PMC3885381
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0082507
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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