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World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Jan 7;20(1):118-25. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i1.118.

Classification, clinicopathologic features and treatment of gastric neuroendocrine tumors.

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Ting-Ting Li, Jun Wan, Ben-Yan Wu, Department of Geriatric Gastroenterology, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.


Gastric neuroendocrine tumors (GNETs) are rare lesions characterized by hypergastrinemia that arise from enterochromaffin-like cells of the stomach. GNETs consist of a heterogeneous group of neoplasms comprising tumor types of varying pathogenesis, histomorphologic characteristics, and biological behavior. A classification system has been proposed that distinguishes four types of GNETs; the clinicopathological features of the tumor, its prognosis, and the patient's survival strictly depend on this classification. Thus, correct management of patients with GNETs can only be proposed when the tumor has been classified by an accurate pathological and clinical evaluation of the patient. Recently developed cancer therapies such as inhibition of angiogenesis or molecular targeting of growth factor receptors have been used to treat GNETs, but the only definitive therapy is the complete resection of the tumor. Here we review the literature on GNETs, and summarize the classification, clinicopathological features (especially prognosis), clinical presentations and current practice of management of GNETs. We also present the latest findings on new gene markers for GNETs, and discuss the effective drugs developed for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of GNETs.


Classification; Clinicopathological significance; Diagnosis; Gastric neuroendocrine tumor; Prognosis; Treatment

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