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J Environ Manage. 2014 Jan 15;133:275-83. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.12.009. Epub 2014 Jan 7.

New methodology for assessing the environmental burden of cement mortars with partial replacement of coal bottom ash and fly ash.

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Eduardo Torroja Institute of Construction Science (IETcc-CSIC), Spain. Electronic address:
Eduardo Torroja Institute of Construction Science (IETcc-CSIC), Spain; ETSIT - Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM), Spain.
EUITI - Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM), Spain.
ETSIM - Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM), Spain.


This paper assess the mechanical an environmental behaviour of cement mortars manufactured with addition of fly ash (FA) and bottom ash (BA), as partial cement replacement (10%, 25% and 35%). The environmental behaviour was studied by leaching tests, which were performed under several temperature (23 °C and 60 °C) and pH (5 and 10) conditions, and ages (1, 2, 4 and 7 days). Then, the accumulated amount of the different constituents leached was analysed. In order to obtain an environmental burden (EB) value of each cement mixture, a new methodology was developed. The EB value obtained is related to the amount leached and the hazardous level of each constituent. Finally, the integral study of compressive strength and EB values of cement mixtures allowed their classification. The results showed that mortars manufactured with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and with coal BA had similar or even better environmental and mechanical behaviour than mortars with FA. Therefore, the partial replacement of cement by BA might be as suitable or even better as the replacement by FA.


Cement additions; Coal bottom ash; Environmental burden; Fly ash; Mechanical properties

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