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Biomaterials. 2014 Mar;35(9):2568-79. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.12.047. Epub 2014 Jan 8.

Heteromultivalent ligand-decoration for actively targeted nanomedicine.

Author information

1
Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.
2
Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. Electronic address: axs262@po.cwru.edu.

Abstract

Active targeting has become an important component of nanomedicine design where nanovehicles are surface-decorated with cell receptor-specific or disease matrix-specific ligands to enable site-selective binding, retention and delivery of theranostic cargo. In this context, there have been numerous reports regarding surface-modification of nanovehicles with antibodies, antibody fragments, carbohydrates, aptamers and peptides as targeting ligands. However, majority of these reports have focused on using a single type of targeting moiety on the vehicle surface. In any disease development and progression, multiple receptors and proteins are often spatio-temporally upregulated simultaneously and heterogeneously. Rationalizing from this, a significant advantage can be envisioned in targeting multiple entities simultaneously using vehicle co-decoration with multiple types of ligands, to enhance binding activity and targeting specificity. To this end, we present a comprehensive up-to-date review on research endeavors in heteromultivalent ligand-modification of nanovehicles and provide a mechanistic rationale as well as an insightful discussion of this promising area, including findings from our own research.

KEYWORDS:

Active targeting; Heteromultivalent; Ligands; Nanomedicine; Receptors

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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