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J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2014 Jan;18(1):23-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2013.04.002. Epub 2013 May 14.

Developmental kinesiology: three levels of motor control in the assessment and treatment of the motor system.

Author information

  • 1Department of Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine, Second Medical Faculty, University Hospital Motol, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address: alenamudr@me.com.
  • 2Department of Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine, Second Medical Faculty, University Hospital Motol, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Abstract

Three levels of sensorimotor control within the central nervous system (CNS) can be distinguished. During the neonatal stage, general movements and primitive reflexes are controlled at the spinal and brain stem levels. Analysis of the newborn's spontaneous general movements and the assessment of primitive reflexes is crucial in the screening and early recognition of a risk for abnormal development. Following the newborn period, the subcortical level of the CNS motor control emerges and matures mainly during the first year of life. This allows for basic trunk stabilization, a prerequisite for any phasic movement and for the locomotor function of the extremities. At the subcortical level, orofacial muscles and afferent information are automatically integrated within postural-locomotor patterns. Finally, the cortical (the highest) level of motor control increasingly becomes activated. Cortical control is important for the individual qualities and characteristics of movement. It also allows for isolated segmental movement and relaxation. A child with impaired cortical motor control may be diagnosed with developmental dyspraxia or developmental coordination disorder. Human ontogenetic models, i.e., developmental motor patterns, can be used in both the diagnosis and treatment of locomotor system dysfunction.

KEYWORDS:

Developmental dyspraxia; Developmental kinesiology; Dynamic neuromuscular stabilization; General movements; Postural stabilization; Primitive reflexes; Sensorimotor control

PMID:
24411146
DOI:
10.1016/j.jbmt.2013.04.002
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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